As we know that welding activity is a hot work activity and mainly in this work welding is done by fusion of metals with the help of high temperature and/or pressure. This specific heat received by electric arcs or flammable gases that may cause fire or burning.
In addition, we use a variety of shielding materials that produce harmful gases, which are hazardous to our health, to identify these hazardous, a set of related recommendations to protect individuals, property and the environment safety, has been published by many international organizations,
There are many hazardous, that occur in the work of welding and cutting and which can be fatal. While the welding system has improved over the past several decades, those potential hazards have also been identified. Other factors that may be hazardous to life, property or the environment, are classifying as follow:
Explosions and fire hazards are by far the largest in relation to welding and flame cutting activity, explosions occur when: —
- Oil or lubricating is likely to come into contact with any pipe, valve, these can cause a fire when in contact with oxygen and heat.
- While we use copper metal with acetylene in welding or cutting process,it may produce a highly explosive solid compound “copper acetylide”which by heat or friction gets readily detonated.
- Back fire may lead to explosion due to blocking up of the flame in the tip of torch .
- Contact in the direct sunlight or electrical equipment of a compressed gas cylinder may cause an explosion.
Fire can cause loss of both life and property, there can be many reasons for a fire, such as: –
- Using damage insulation of cable.
- Burning through hot slag/flying particle approaches into combustible materials.
- Lose connections of electrical equipments can caused of overheating or sparking .
- Leaking of fuel gas valves
Shock can also cause burns and loss of life, the basic reasons are as follows:
- Un insulated/damage power cables
- Lock of welding cable/holder
Welding and Cutting Operations
- Combustible material should be removed before start welding or cutting activity. The working area should be free from scraps and all types of unwanted materials.
- The face shield should be worn at the time of cutting to get protection from hot flying particles.
- Cutting should be kept away from the operator to avoid the possibility of molten metal spraying into the face or cloth.
- To avoid ultraviolet rays, welding operators should have an appropriate Welding hood.
- welding cable shall be completely insulated to avoid shock. Earth clamp should be tightened and well connected as much as strong.
- Gas cylinders are must be kept in upright position and in a shaded area and cylinders valve should be closed when it is not in use.
- Cap should used when not take in use,as any type of support.
- Always keep segregated different type of cylinders because mixing can cause of fire or expulsion.
- Never try to mixing gases in a cylinder.
- Water, dirt, grease should always be cleaned before connecting the regulator to the hose pipe.
- Approved flash arresters should be install.
- Any one should not allowed to smoke near the gas storage area.
Other gas equipments
- Correct pressure regulator should be applied for specific gas .
- Pressure regulator should be calibrated,Union nut and connections on regulator should be checked properly before start.
- Gas torches and tips should be store in a clean and safe place.
Arc welding Machine
- The arc welding machine shall be on an appropriate basis and shall be protected from inclement weather conditions when used in an open area.
- welding machine should be clean periodically for dust and other substances.
- machine should be calibrated and color coded by authorized personals.
- connecting terminals should be covered and cable must be fully insulated .
- The electrode holder should be tightened and well connected to the welding cable.
- welding cable should be free from repair and it should be flexible.
- The cable should be inspected and color corded periodically.
Operators should use full personal protective equipment to protect them from all types of injuries and incidents. A welding operator need to be protected from:-
- Flying particles like hot slag, grinding sparks, flying metals, hot electrode stubs.
- The ultraviolet rays
- Fumes and gasses
- Falling objects
- Fire and burning
- Heavy sounds
To protect from the above-mentioned hazards, the welder must use full P.P.E like welding hood with proper glasses, dust mask, full-body harness, proper hand gloves for a specific job, Safety shoes, earplugs.