The material can be termed as a mixture of materials to compose a thing.

Lots of definitions of material have spread to our surroundings. But we will be discussed here the materials, that are eligible for welding. Materials can be classified into four main groups:

  • metals
  • polymers
  • ceramics
  • composites


Various types of metals are being used in welding processes, the short introduction about materials and possible welding process are here.


Carbon steel              Cast iron                 Aloy Steel                      Aluminum and its Alloys



wrought iron

Wrought iron is generated by melting pig iron clots in a puddling furnace. Wrought iron is characterized by extremely low carbon content. Wrought iron dominated fibrous structure because slag(iron-silicate)is distributed ubiquitously the iron base metal in the form of threads or fiber that extends in the direction of rolling. Wrought iron possesses:

1. High ductility
2. Good tensile strength
3. High corrosion obstruction
4. Resistance to stress

Contents of wrought iron

With 1539°C of melting point the wrought iron’s weld structures in piping are:
1. Radiant heating systems
2. Skating rings
3. Snow melting installations
4. Sewer outfalls
5. Penstocks
6. Smokestacks
7. Ballast deck plates for railway bridges etc.

Carbon          0.035%max

Manganese   0.10%max

Phosphorus  0.08 to0.18%

Sulfur             0.020% max

Silicon            0.10 to0.20%

Slag                 2.00 to3.50%

Iron                remainder

Weldability of wrought iron

Wrought iron is easy to weld because it is composed of practically pure iron and Slag fibers serve as fluxing formate at the welding temperature. Since the slag fused at temperature, in fact, lower than the wrought iron base metal it gives the best defense against oxidation to the base metal surface during welding. Since it is not there in wrought iron, internal strains due to welding are reduced and the hardening capacity of the metal is relieving treatment(370-425°C). It needs a higher welding temperature than for (mild steel or)most ferrous alloys because of its higher purity.

Welding Processes:

The following processes are used for welding wrought iron:

Forge welding process

Resistance welding process

Oxy-acetylene welding process

Shielded metal arc welding process

Thermit welding process

Submerged arc welding process 



Chart of piping data 


Weld world





Full chart of ASME B36.10/19    Download Hear 




full chart of pipe schedule     Download Hear